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Aaron Evans
Aaron Evans

I Didn't Know

The following professional development program is anchored by anti-racist pedagogy, a paradigm that centers praxis in efforts to challenge individuals and structural systems that perpetuate racism.9 Praxis, which is transformation accomplished through reflection and action, requires developing critical consciousness about racism and the impacts of racism on individuals and communities.10 Because academic environments traditionally value objectivity and knowledge that is context independent, engaging in anti-racist work in the academy is especially challenging.11 Thus, all those involved (e.g., participants and facilitators) must be prepared to experience some level of emotional and mental discomfort and to disrupt the way they typically engage in professional development opportunities.

I Didn't Know


Prerequisite knowledge by presenters and collaborators must be centered on equity. Hence, we recommend partnerships with equity, diversity, inclusion (EDI), or justice-oriented collaborators. This could be in the form of EDI experts and scholars present in offices of diversity affairs, multicultural centers, or higher education scholars. In addition, we highly encourage the workshop team to have a good sense of current sociocultural dynamics and an understanding of the experiences of underrepresented faculty and trainees, as well as sensitivity to disparities and outcomes in health care.

Before transitioning to the second half of the workshop, participants participated in an individual 10-minute reflection exercise (Appendix G) to start shifting their mindsets toward responding to such incidents. We introduced the reflection exercise as part of our efforts at situating participants in active roles. Reflection allowed for retrospection and improvement of one's actions, abilities, and knowledge.

It is important to explore what motivates individuals to respond to these instances of RDM. We found three overarching themes: upbringing and previous experiences; values centered on equity, equality, and justice; and agency. Specifically, our lived experiences, values compass, and courage to act are what motivates us to become active bystanders. This aligns with bystander motivation literature, which, in cases of bullying, has shown five motivators: interpretation of harm in the situation, emotional reactions, social evaluating, moral evaluating, and intervention self-efficacy.22 Simultaneously, we examined the reasons that prevent action: power positioning and dynamic, lack of knowledge or personal experience with the issue, and racial battle fatigue, a salient theme amongst attendees of color. Racial battle fatigue, as Smith argued, is the stress associated with racial microaggressions that causes various forms of mental, emotional, and physical strain.5

Despite medical education's commitment to cultural competence and institutional mission statements that value diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, curriculum innovation and professional development opportunities are hard to implement. There are qualitative differences between the experiences of underrepresented faculty and students compared to those from majority groups in medicine. As educators, we have to acknowledge that our actions and inactions are often modeled. We were pleased to see our educators took ownership and responsibility for the learning environments. Qualitative answers highlighted the impact of our roles with these themes: promoting change, providing safe environments, the importance of critical conversations, role modeling, and professionalism.

Assessments were developed by Drs. Sotto-Santiago and Amy Ribera, Research and Evaluation Analyst and Associate Research Professor at Indiana University School of Medicine. We want to acknowledge Dr. Ribera's contribution to the project and expertise in evaluation and assessments.

I never knew I loved the suneven when setting cherry-red as nowin Istanbul too it sometimes sets in postcard colors but you aren't about to paint it that wayI didn't know I loved the sea except the Sea of Azovor how much

the train plunges on through the pitch-black nightI never knew I liked the night pitch-blacksparks fly from the engineI didn't know I loved sparksI didn't know I loved so many things and I had to wait until sixty to find it out sitting by the window on the Prague-Berlin train watching the world disappear as if on a journey of no return

"I had a very normal childhood. My parents actively made it that way," she said. "We had a couple of maids, a housekeeper and a nanny, but that didn't matter. I was still expected to clear the table. I've tried to replicate that with my son."

"Someone said to me, when Barbara Walters died, that women like her and my mom had to even build the doors that they then had to kick down," Rivers said. "[I didn't ] realize that until I was an adult and had perspective of what the business is really like."

"Nobody wants to drill down on what it means, you know?" Rivers said. "It might get you the meeting. It might even get you the job, but it's not gonna help you keep the job. All the successful [nepo babies] are successful because they were capable."

It is not just children who see Africa as a land full of wild animals and starving children. One of the authors of this article showed slides in her child's classroom of their family's trip to the capital city of Dakar in Senegal, with images of cars, tall buildings and people in schools, restaurants and at work. As soon as the slide show was over, the teacher jumped in front of the class and told all the students, "I want you to know that this is not the real Africa that you have just seen here."

Because teachers, parents, and other adults are influenced by ongoing exposure to these stereotypes, we must carefully examine and challenge our own knowledge and assumptions about African environments, customs, traditions and cultural realities. Otherwise, our misimpressions influence the kinds of learning opportunities we create for children.

Most recent immigrants from African countries to the United States learn quickly about how little Americans know about Africa and experience firsthand the racism associated with that ignorance. We have heard countless stories from first-generation immigrants from Africa about the questions they receive. Invariably, they are asked about wild animals. Many of these immigrants have come from cities in Africa and have not seen a wild animal except in the zoo. In some cases, children are taunted, told to return to the jungle or asked to show their tail.

Just as it is unusual to use "Europe" when referring to France or "North America" when referring to Canada, avoid using "Africa" to stand for individual African countries. Some guidance: Some children's books have Africa in the title, but the author's note indicates which nation is featured. If a parent, fellow teacher, or guest speaker references Africa, you can ask: "Which country?" If there are first-generation immigrants from the African continent in your school or classroom, be sure that you and your students know their specific countries of origin. Read Africa is Not a Country (Burns & Melnicove, 2000) to your students, and find the featured countries on a map of Africa. Reinforce the vastness of the continent with the informative map "How Big is Africa," which fits Europe, China and the United States into Africa.

Did you know that most Africans have never seen large wild animals? Elephants, lions and giraffes populate only a few countries, primarily in East and Southern Africa, and today most of these large animals live in or near national parks. Children in Africa are much more likely to see the same animals an American child would see. I Lost My Tooth in Africa (Diakite, 2006), What's Cooking, Jamela? (2001) and Musa's Journey (Grobler, 1997) collectively feature birds, dogs, cats, chickens and a host of other barnyard animals. If "wild animals" is a must-do theme, read a book about wild animals in the U.S., and then read Home Now (Beake, 2007), a realistic story about an orphaned South African girl who befriends an orphaned elephant that lives in a national park. In Ashraf of Africa (Mennen and Daly, 1990), we see fierce lions, gliding crocodiles, and thundering zebras but discover that Ashraf, who lives "in a city, a city at the very tip of the great African continent," has only seen these animals in a book.

To ensure that your students never say, "I didn't know there were cities in Africa," pretend your class is taking a trip that includes a tour of two or more cities. Students will need to plan their air travel, select hotels, understand the currency and exchange rate, pack appropriate clothing and identify places of interest to visit. Good choices for this project are: Accra, Ghana; Cairo, Egypt; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and Cape Town, South Africa. Cape Town (Stein, 1998) and Cairo (Stein, 1996) are good resources for planning trips to these cities. For Accra and Addis Ababa, use Google Images and the University of Wisconsin's digital collection Africa Focus: Sights and Sounds from Africa. Don't limit your study of urbanization in Africa to the present. Ask students in grades 3 and higher to write about living in an ancient or medieval African city. UNESCO's World Heritage site has useful information on Aksum and Lalibela, Ethiopia, and medieval Timbuktu, Mali.

The above article is intended to provide generalized financial information designed to educate a broad segment of the public; it does not give personalized tax, investment, legal, or other business and professional advice. Before taking any action, you should always seek the assistance of a professional who knows your particular situation for advice on taxes, your investments, the law, or any other business and professional matters that affect you and/or your business.

"My anti-aging doctor just hands it out to anybody," the 47-year-old revealed during the Jan. 25 episode of Call Her Daddy. "I didn't even know I was on it. She said, 'If you ever want to drop five pounds, this is good.'" 041b061a72


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