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Ivan Titov
Ivan Titov

Stretching Anatomy

The body adapts differently to acute stretching (or short-term stretching) and chronic stretching (or stretching done multiple times during a week). The majority of current research shows that when acute stretches cause a noticeable increase in a joint's range of motion, the person can experience either inhibition of the motor nerves, overlengthening of the muscle sarcomeres, or increased length and compliance of the muscle's tendons. No one is sure of the extent of these changes, but it appears that the muscle shape and cell arrangement, muscle length and contribution to movement, and length of the distal and proximal tendons all play a role. Nevertheless, these transient changes are manifested as decreases in maximal strength, power, and strength endurance. On the other hand, research studies have shown that regular heavy stretching for a minimum of 10 to 15 minutes three or four days a week (chronic stretching) results in the development of increased strength, power, and strength endurance as well as improved flexibility and mobility. Animal studies suggest that these benefits are due in part to increased numbers of sarcomeres in series.

Stretching anatomy

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Likewise, research into stretching for injury prevention has shown differences between acute stretching and chronic stretching. Although acute stretching can help an extremely tight person reduce the incidence of muscle strains, the normal person appears to gain minimal injury-prevention benefit from acute stretching. People who are inherently more flexible are less prone to exercise-related injuries, and inherent flexibility is increased with heavy stretching three or four days a week. Because of these differences between acute and chronic stretching, many exercise experts now encourage people to do the majority of their stretching at the end of a workout.

The anatomy and muscular motions of strength training and stretching. Understanding the anatomy and muscle motions of various exercises and stretches helps you to understand exactly what you are doing when trying it out for yourself!

Newly revised for 2020! See inside every stretch as you increase flexibility and improve muscular strength. Expanded, enhanced, and updated, this best-selling course shows you how to increase range of motion, supplement training, enhance recovery, and maximize efficiency of movement: it is like having an X-ray of each stretch, only better. Not only do you see full-color illustrations of the muscles in action, but you also see how a change in position can alter the muscle emphasis. Each exercise describes how to stretch, when to stretch, primary and secondary muscle emphasis, and which muscles are activated for support. Stretching programs provide three levels of difficulty, including light stretching that can be used to aid in recovery from soreness and injury. Course includes soft-cover textbook, separate testing booklet and free, instant grading. Softcover, 232 pages.

Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV.

The hip external rotator muscles are commonly neglected in stretching routines. Overuse of these muscles in activities such as basketball, soccer, and hockey can lead to soreness, tightness, and even injuries to this area. In addition, poor flexibility usually leads to lower-quality performance. Participants do a lot of stepping sideways, using a lot of these muscles whenever the hip rotates outward. Using this stretch regularly will build flexibility and strength.

This NAT Diploma course includes a balance of theoretical information about the fundamentals of stretching and flexibility, anatomy and physiology, and the practical application of how to perform 135 unique stretching exercises (with simple to follow numbering system to help reference each stretch).

Each exercise describes how to stretch, when to stretch, primary and secondary muscle emphasis, and which muscles are activated for support. Stretching programs provide three levels of difficulty, including light stretching that can be used to aid in recovery from soreness and injury. A new chapter on dynamic stretches covers the most effective exercises for athletic warm-ups, while another chapter shows you how to customize a program based on your individual needs, including a program of passive static stretches proven to help lower blood glucose.

The stretching of a muscle fiber begins with the sarcomere, the basic unit of contraction in the muscle fiber. As the sarcomere contracts, the area of overlap between the thick and thin myofilaments increases (discussed above). As it stretches, this area of overlap DECREASES, allowing the muscle fiber to elongate. Once the muscle fiber is at its maximum resting length (all the sarcomeres are fully stretched), additional stretching places force on the surrounding connective tissue. As the tension increases, the collagen fibers in the connective tissue align themselves along the same line of force as the tension. So as you continue to stretch, the muscle fiber is pulled out to its full length sarcomere by sarcomere, and then the connective tissue takes up the remaining slack. When this occurs, it may help to realign any disorganized fibers in the direction of the tension. This realignment may be what helps to rehabilitate scarred tissue back to health (during recovery from muscle injury/after surgery). 041b061a72


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